Jones included 22 players involved in Japan, but many of the absentees are carrying injuries, including No.8 Billy Vunipola, who broke his arm for the fourth time on Sunday.
Prop Dan Cole, who had a torrid time in the final defeat by South Africa, was an expected omission, while versatile back Jack Nowell was also missing.
Of the uncapped group, Tom Dunn, Ben Earl and Ollie Thorley have been involved in previous squads, while Fraser Dingwall, George Furbank, Alex Moon, Will Stuart and Jacob Umaga are called up for the first time.
Umaga is the nephew of former All Blacks captain Tana Umaga, and son of former Wellington and Manu Samoa fullback Mike Umaga.
In addition to the 34 players, Josh Hodge, who plays in the second-tier Championship, and Alex Mitchell have been called up as apprentices and will only train with the squad.
"The Six Nations, for us, is all about raising the standards in terms of the way we prepare tactically and physically, how we play the game and the way we come together off the field," Jones said.
"But our first task is beating France [in Paris on February 2] and that is the only game we need to worry about. We will begin our preparations in Portugal, get a bit of sun, some warm conditions, and get ourselves physically and mentally right for the game.
"The first three days will be about getting organised. We have got players from 11 clubs, so we need to get everyone on the same page quickly, spend a lot of time working on our togetherness and then, by Tuesday next week, we are in preparation for France."
England will assemble at their regular Pennyhill Park base on Wednesday, travel to Portugal on Thursday and from there, they will go direct to Paris for their opening game.
England have not won the championship since 2017, finishing second last season and a distant fifth in 2018.