Carter beat former New Zealand captain Richie McCaw in the final.
There were 16-players up for the gong and fans voted over a week on head to head clashes to determine the ultimate winner.
All Black halfback Aaron Smith, first-five Beauden Barrett and outgoing captain Kieran Read were also in the mix.
The 37-year-old Carter won World Cups in 2011 and 2015, playing a staring role in the latter after many had written him off as past his prime.
He played 112 tests, winning 99 of them, after debuting in 2003.