The 25 year old will remain with the Crusaders and Northland during that time.
"It's an awesome opportunity. Of course, I love playing rugby in New Zealand. Love representing my province at home in Northland, playing for the Crusaders and whatever rugby I can for New Zealand. It's awesome," Goodhue said.
The midfielder joins fellow All Blacks Samuel Whitelock, Brodie Retallick, Patrick Tuipulotu, Scott Barrett, Beauden Barrett and Anton Lienert-Brown in recommitting to the end of the next World Cup in France.
All Blacks Head Coach Ian Foster is happy Goodhue has pledged his future to New Zealand.
"It's fantastic news that Jack has re-signed with New Zealand Rugby for three more years. He's grown immensely as a player since coming into our group in 2017 and has some real international experience under his belt which will serve him well in the future. He's also a growing leader in our team and we look forward to seeing how his influence grows both on and of field over the next few years."
Crusaders Head Coach Scott Robertson recognised Goodhue as a significant re-signing for his team.
"Jack is a world-class midfielder and a critical member of the Crusaders team, who has been integral to our success. At 25, he's earned more than 50 Super Rugby caps and is a genuine leader in our group. We're excited he's confirmed his playing future in red and black."
Northland Rugby Chief Executive Cameron Bell has welcomed Goodhue's return to his provincial roots.
"Northland Rugby and the Kawakawa community are super excited that our Jack has committed through to 2023. He is an inspiration to our tamariki and rangatahi and will be part of the backbone of Northland rugby's resurgence. Rise the Taniwha."
Born and raised in Northland, Jack Goodhue has been an ever-present figure for the Crusaders side since making his Super Rugby debut in 2017.
He debuted for the All Blacks against a French XV in November that year and made his Test debut six months later against France in Dunedin.
He has played 13 Tests for the All Blacks to date and featured at last year's Rugby World Cup, playing four matches.