Figures from Queensland Health showed 27,506 people were diagnosed with an STI in 2016, up 10 per cent on the previous year.
About 82 per cent of cases were for chlamydia, however experts have been surprised by a large spike in gonorrhoea.
In 2016, 4,006 Queenslanders were diagnosed with gonorrhoea, up from 3,038 the previous year.
The bacterial disease can affect both sexes, and has the potential to cause infertility in women and harm unborn babies.
Most cases were recorded Brisbane's Metro North and Metro South reporting areas.