The five-time NBA champion died, aged 41, in a helicopter crash in January 2020 alongside his 13-year-old daughter Gianna and seven others.
He was presented at the ceremony in Connecticut by NBA great Michael Jordan and his widow, Vanessa, accepted his induction on his behalf.
In a speech, she said: "You did it, you're in the Hall of Fame now."
Vanessa Bryant added: "You're a true champ. You're not just an MVP, you are an all-time great. I'm so proud of you. I love you forever and always, Kobe Bean Bryant."