The woman was not shot, Washington Metropolitan Police spokesperson Rachel Reid told the BBC, and no injuries have been reported.
She was taken into custody and the incident prompted a lockdown at one of the Congress buildings.
The incident follows driving attacks last week in London and Brussels.
Capitol Police spokeswoman Eva Malecki said the suspect is a woman, and the incident is "criminal in nature with no nexus to terrorism".
The incident occurred after officers observed an "erratic and aggressive driver" and tried to pull her car over.